2020 Sigma Zeta National Convention Presentation Abstracts

* Recipients of Sigma Zeta Research Awards

Presentation abstracts will be published here shortly (usually within 24 hours) after they are submitted. (sp,fp,np designate preference for presentation day, however the host chapter makes the final decision on presentation times]

Abstract Submission Form


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Juliana Guaglianone
Author(s):
Juliana Guaglianone, Anne Rammelsberg Rodriguez

Chapter: Pi
College/University: Millikin University

Title:
The purification of nicotinamidase and development of ammonia assay for quantitative analysis of enzyme activity 

Presentation Abstract: Embargo

Abstract Embargo: Yes
Presentation Type: Poster Session Presentation
Presentation Time Preference:
Subject Area of Presentation:
Presentation Equipment Needs:


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Zachary Strickland
Author(s):
Zachary Strickland

Chapter: Gamma Gamma
College/University: Concordia College

Title:
Product Inhibition Studies of /E. Coli /Glutamate Dehydrogenase Reveal an Ordered Mechanism

Presentation Abstract:
/E. Coli /glutamate dehydrogenase (EcGDH) is a highly regulated, homohexomeric enzyme active in cellular metabolism which catalyzes the transformation of glutamate’s primary amide to a carbonyl group, forming /alpha-/ketoglutarate (ɑKG)/. /Our research focused on elucidating the overall mechanism via spectrophotometric assays of product inhibition using wide concentrations of substrate and inhibitors. Assays contained 35µM NADP+ and 0-20mM Glu, with either 0-100 mM ɑKG 0-200 µM NADPH, or 0-10 mM NH3. Absorbance at 340nm was followed for five minutes following addition of enzyme. Assays demonstrated competitive inhibition for Glu with ɑKG, and noncompetitive inhibition for Glu with NADPH and NH3. The competitive pattern indicates that Glu is the first substrate to bind in the active site and ɑKG is the last to leave after catalysis is complete. Noncompetitive patterns in NADPH and NH3indicate that they bind to forms of enzyme not accessible to Glu, so are found in the middle of the mechanism. While not definitive, these data strongly correlate with the suggested ordered mechanism of catalysis.

Presentation Type: Poster Session Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Friday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs:

 


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Miriah Forness, Natalie Dubois, Jordan Oliphant
Author(s):
Miriah Forness, Natalie Dubois, Jordan Oliphant

Chapter: Gamma Gamma
College/University: Concordia College

Title:
Screening for /Toxocara cati /and /Toxocara canis/ parasites in soils of Moorhead public parks by PCR

Presentation Abstract:
Toxocariasis, a neglected parasitic disease, has been found to be among the most prevalent zoonotic parasitic infections worldwide. Toxocariasis is caused by the parasitic nematode /Toxocara/. Two species, /Toxocara cati/ and /Toxocara canis, /use cats and dogs respectively as their definitive hosts. Infected cats and dogs shed /Toxocara/ eggs in their feces, which causes contamination of soil. Humans and other animals may accidentally ingest the eggs through contact with soil in public places. Research has found a significant percentage of humans infected with /Toxocara /within the U.S. and globally, and that rate is likely to grow. Currently, there is limited data on /Toxocara/ egg occurrence throughout cities in the Midwest region of the United States. To expand surveillance on a local scale in the Midwest, our research aims to examine the prevalence of /Toxocara/ eggs in soils of public parks frequented by
cats and dogs in Moorhead, Minnesota. We collected soil samples from public parks and we are currently conducting soil screening using a PCR-based approach designed to amplify rRNA genes. We are targeting unique regions of rRNA genes to distinguish /T.cati /and /T.canis. /We anticipate finding /Toxocara /present in the soil samples, reflecting the prevalence thought to be present in the United States. If so, this would warrant greater public awareness, education, and city public health measures to protect humans and other animals from exposure to contaminated soils to maintain a
low risk of infection for the local population.

Presentation Type: Oral Paper Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Friday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs:

 


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Bailey Klause, Andrew Middendorf
Author(s):
Bailey Klause, Andrew Middendorf, Dr. Thelma S. Berquó, Dr. Graeme R.A. Wyllie

Chapter: Gamma Gamma
College/University: Concordia College

Title:
Magnetic Properties of  Aluminum, Nickel, and Chromium Doped Goethite

Presentation Abstract:
Goethite is an iron oxide commonly found on Earth’s surface, and it often has some amount of aluminum substitution. This aluminum impacts the structure and characteristics of the goethite. In our work, we investigated the effects that substitution of varying amounts of aluminum, nickel, and chromium has on the magnetic properties of goethite samples. Three different sets of samples were synthesized with differing target percentages of metal doping. Each set was then thermally treated in order to accelerate the conversion process of the iron oxide. The first set of samples was doped with target substitutions of 0,4,8,12, and 24% aluminum. The next two sets of samples were doped with target substitutions of a constant 4% aluminum and 4, 8, and 20% nickel or chromium. This was done to determine whether one metal would substitute preferentially, as well as observe how the different metals affect the iron oxide properties. The samples were then analyzed using Mössbauer Spectroscopy in order to identify the phases that were present in each sample
and the nature of their magnetic behavior. Some samples were also examined
using VSM and a SQUID magnetometer to further inspect their magnetic
properties.

Presentation Type: Poster Session Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Saturday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Physical Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs:

 


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Morgan Raines and Jonathan Waldron
Author(s):
Morgan Raines and Jonathan Waldron

Chapter: Gamma Eta
College/University: Marian University

Title:
The Lethality of KMnO4 and Penicillin on Clostridium/ Perfringens/

Presentation Abstract:
The anaerobic bacteria, Clostridium/ perfringens/, is the primary bacterial cause of gas gangrene, a life-threatening infection. The bacterial toxins induce severe myonecrosis by emitting gas under the skin. With standard treatment (antibiotics, surgical debridement, and HBO therapy), there is a 25-30% mortality rate and a 100% mortality rate when left untreated. Furthermore, patients with gas gangrene commonly undergo amputations, specifically limb amputations, which is a drastic, life-altering change. Recent studies in China hypothesized that combining potassium permanganate (KMnO4) with antibiotics may be a safer, less invasive, more effective treatment method due to the oxidizing nature of KMnO4. Due to dangers associated with handling C. /perfringen/s, this study used a bacterium in the same family, C. /butyricum /as an alternative. Our objective was to determine whether a combination of potassium permanganate and antibiotics is in fact more effective than the current treatment methods
used in the US. Four different concentrations of penicillin and five different concentrations of KMnO4 were applied individually to the bacteria and the samples incubated for 24 hours. Our initial aim was to determine the MIC50 of both treatments under anaerobic conditions and use those concentrations when we combine the two. The results for the penicillin trials were analyzed via absorbance and the results for the KMnO4 trials were analyzed using fluorescence. Penicillin had a drastic effect on the bacteria, killing approximately 43% of the bacteria with the highest dose used, 0.02 μg/mL. KMnO4 also seemingly had a significant effect on bacterial growth, inhibiting more than 50% of growth with our smallest concentration of 0.0016 g/mL. Our preliminary research showed promise both for moving on to the combination phase and for determining that there may be an alternative treatment for gas gangrene. Future research will consist of performing more trials using the same concentrations of KMnO4 and penicillin to ensure consistency and reproducibility prior to combining the two treatments. Furthermore, once we are certain that the C. /butyricum /trials have produced accurate results,
we will move on to using C. /perfringens./

Presentation Type: Poster Session Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Saturday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs:

 


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Katherine Woller
Author(s):
Katherine Woller and Angela Stoeckman

Chapter: Beta Iota
College/University: Bethel University

Title:
Free-fatty acid receptor 4 knock-out mice and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Presentation Abstract:
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects one of every three Americans and understanding the etiology of the disease is important for both its prevention and diagnosis.  The current state of knowledge is that both (1) an increase in liver fatty acids (steatosis) and (2) inflammation are required for this disease to progress to symptomatic states such as cancer and cirrhosis.  Tissue-infiltrating macrophages are a common denominator of disease states as they are known to secrete pro-inflammatory molecules in response to numerous signals, including bacterial infection and saturated
fatty acids.  Recently, NAFLD associated with obesity was linked to the lack of liver omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids, and a genetic variant in the omega-3 fatty acid receptor (FFAR4) has been implicated in the progression of NAFLD.  Our research goal is to determine if mice lacking the FFAR4 gene readily develop liver steatosis, and whether liver-infiltrated macrophages lacking FFAR4 are more likely to secrete inflammatory markers.

Presentation Type: Poster Session Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Friday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs:

 


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Joseph Grove, Adam Dallmann
Author(s):
Joseph Grove, Adam Dallmann, Kristyn Voegele, Paul Ullmann, Ron Nellermoe

Chapter: Gamma Gamma
College/University: Concordia College - Moorhead, MN

Title:
ASSESSING THE IDENTITY OF A NEW /ALLOSAURUS/ SKELETON FROM THE JURASSIC MORRISON FORMATION OF WYOMING

Presentation Abstract:
/Allosaurus/ is one of the best known theropod dinosaurs, with numerous skeletons described from Utah, Wyoming, and Montana. However, relatively complete skeletons of /Allosaurus/ remain rare, in part because they are often found in disarticulated bone beds. We provide a preliminary description
of a new specimen, comprised of 65 cranial and postcranial elements, found near Shell in the Jurassic Morrison Formation (JMF) in north-central Wyoming. The specimen exhibits a unique combination of large body size with sub-adult characteristics. We interpret the remains as belonging to a sub-adult
individual due to the majority of the dorsal neural arches remaining unfused to their respective centra, the pubes being unfused, the coracoid not being fused to the scapula, and evidence of ongoing growth from femoral osteohistology slides. Additionally, the number of alveoli is high compared to agreed-upon "adult" individuals of /Allosaurus/. Whereas previously-described adult specimens of /Allosaurus/ exhibit 14–17 alveoli in the maxilla and dentary, the new specimen exhibits 19–21 alveoli in each
jaw element. Despite these indications that the individual was not fully grown, it was comparable in body size to other "adult" /Allosaurus/ specimens. For example, the partial femur has a mid-shaft circumference of 28cm, and other "adult" /Allosaurus/ femora exhibit mid-shaft circumferences
of up to 30cm. Similarly, the dentary tooth rows are 32.6cm and 33.2cm in anteroposterior length in the new specimen, and other "adult" /Allosaurus /dentaries exhibit tooth row lengths of up to 33cm. Among the three currently-recognized species of /Allosaurus/ (/A. europaeus/, /A. fragilis/, and /A. jimmadseni/), we determined that our skeleton is a specimen of /Allosaurus fragilis /due to the ventrally curved posterior ramus of the maxilla, the rugose, rounded character of the nasal crest, and the dorsally
flat form of the symphysis between the nasals. Additionally, by analyzing and comparing the clay layers in our stratigraphic column with other sections of the JMF from the local area, we estimated the time period this skeleton was preserved in to be in the lower portion of the JMF.

Presentation Type: Poster Session Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Saturday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs: We might need to have a table and clothe in order to have bones or replicas present.

 


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Alexis Adrian
Author(s):
Alexis Adrian, Ali Tug, Song Zhang, Ivan Vuckovic, Jared Lutsic, Petras Dzeja, Slobodan Macura, Lilach O. Lerman, Peter C. Harri

Chapter: Gamma Gamma
College/University: Concordia College

Title:
Betaine supplementation ameliorates renal disease severity in experimental Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)

Presentation Abstract: Embargo

Abstract Embargo: Yes
Presentation Type: Oral Paper Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Saturday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs:

 


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Korbyn Dahlquist
Author(s):
Korbyn Dahlquist and Angela Stoeckman

Chapter: Beta Iota
College/University: Bethel University

Title:
Hepatoma cell response to saturated fatty acids

Presentation Abstract:
Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC), a major type of primary liver cancer, is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality, globally. The main causes of HCC are Hepatitis C and B viral infections, followed by excessive alcohol consumption, but the fastest increasing cause of this cancer is due to
metabolic disorders, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Metabolic-disease-associated HCC has been linked to biological processes, such as chronic inflammation due to pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and lipotoxicity.  Our project investigates the cytokines secreted by hepatoma cells in response to excess saturated fatty acids. An antibody array indicated that the cytokines CINC-1 and VEGF are secreted in response to palmitate treatment. In our experiments, we have observed a significant increase in the secretion of CINC-1 in hepatoma cells treated with palmitate compared to a vehicle control. This increase was not observed in AML-12 hepatocytes, suggesting that it is specific to hepatoma cells. Elevated CINC-1 levels began within two hours of palmitate treatment and were also
dose-dependent. When co-treated with the unsaturated fatty acid oleate, or in the absence of glucose, CINC-1 secretion was reduced. We are currently investigating the mechanisms involved in the production of CINC-1 in response to palmitate treatment.  A better understanding of the progression of HCC is important to improve treatment options as well as metastatic prevention.

Presentation Type: Oral Paper Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Friday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs:

 


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Jesse Mojeske
Author(s):
Jesse Mojeske and Stacey Stoffregen

Chapter: Beta Iota
College/University: Bethel University

Title:
A Computational Study of the Atmospheric Degradation of (/E/)-HFC=CHCF3

Presentation Abstract:
In 1987, the Montreal Protocol was enacted after a series of studies provided conclusive evidence that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), a class of refrigerants and aerosols, were cleaved by short wavelength radiation in the atmosphere producing chlorine radicals. These radicals are able to catalytically cleave
ozone in the stratosphere, causing significant damage to the ozone layer. After the phase out of the CFCs, a new class of refrigerants and aerosols were produced called hydrofluorochlorocarbons (HCFCs). The use of HCFCs was commonplace until 2016 when the Montreal Protocol was reiterated with the
Kigali Amendment, which stated that HCFCs were also to be phased out of industrial production due to their high global warming and ozone depletion potentials. Since this amendment there has been a focus on another class of molecules, hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs), which contains a double bond that can be used to initiate a radical reaction with a number of reactive atmospheric species in the stratosphere; particularly the hydroxyl radical. A computational investigation of the degradation pathway for (/E/)-HFC=CHCF3 initiated by addition of the hydroxyl radical was performed using MO6/6-311+g**. The results of this investigation present information on the degradation products and intermediates in the presence of O2/NOx, which may be useful to other studies. In addition, the investigation promotes insight to the atmospheric degradation of an HFO through the use of computational chemistry, which may be valuable in the design and implementation of other aerosols and refrigerants.

Presentation Type: Oral Paper Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Friday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Physical Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs:

 


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Andrew Hunt
Author(s):
Andrew Hunt and James Christenson

Chapter: Beta Iota
College/University: Bethel University

Title:
Identification of Stereospecific Enzymes for the Creation of Medically Active
β-Lactones

Presentation Abstract:
β-Lactone natural products have been found to act as anti-tuberculosis and anti-cancer drugs, along with other positive effects. It has been recently published that β-lactones are created as an intermediate in the olefin biosynthesis pathway by a β-lactone synthetase, OleC. Using this protein sequence information, we have identified several hundred homologs in diverse organisms. We are specifically investigating the β-lactones synthetases from /Nocardia /that likely create the more medically potent /trans/ lactone. The purification and characterization of new β-lactone synthetases is the focus of this work.

Presentation Type: Poster Session Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Friday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Physical Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs:

 


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Christopher Jones, Jackson Miller, Jet Selis
Author(s):
Christopher Jones, Jackson Miller, Jet Selis, Dr. Levi Mielke, Dr. Styers-Barnett

Chapter: Rho
College/University: University of Indianapolis

Title:
Distributed Pharmecuetical Analysis Labratory (DPAL): Metformin Pill Sample Analysis

Presentation Abstract:
The Distributed Pharmaceutical Analysis Laboratory (DPAL) is a collaborative project based out of the University of Notre Dame, that tests pharmaceuticals from developing nations for substandard or fraudulent pills. The analysis is conducted using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the amount of active ingredient. In the DPAL project, multiple verification processes have to be met to ensure accurate analysis of potentially fraudulent medications. Previously, the University of Indianapolis DPAL group has performed many tests and suitability checks with metformin standard
solutions in order to build a method, test it, and verify our instrument can accurately quantify the pharmaceutical content. The DPAL group has found our system meets the strict analytical requirements of the program. After receiving the verification from Dr. Lieberman at Notre Dame, sample pills from east Africa were received. The UIndy DPAL group has begun to run these pills using the developed methods and to quantify the metformin content in each pill. The group has also received an excel workbook with the needed statistical equations to verify whether each pill passes or fails. To date,
nine pills have been run with anomalous results. The group is trying to find the source of these irregularities and ensure accurate results in the future. UIndy DPAL has also begun to train new students to join the group after the seniors graduate. Moving on, more samples will be tested and a report made to Notre Dame.

Works Cited
1.     Substandard and Falsified Medical Products.
https://secure-web.cisco.com/1WrI-P8c-sPIIDR_d1w6yIJ7V5_GEK8wlozmq-xIUmnS2tq7yFypa0ufrgFq-_DlfqzuDELtdI3Z8ECX18JSIkfeemmaYXaeGKrewzRw5XrDSPdQm3aCDAR0aX1ptDxs8lZIgUKfkAAagUgUUUdNbksejqTXlvL9zocmNdD2zJAqqzB3v5mMuTAHtDIcCG7OnYa_Jappezb4X06r_ee-kaVU8UiDdQFvRWaWfpi_TdY162_w0ofUmVgqfvL2SZcra9Ds8xn9Hi_QMx1_3IiuKPftpPn2MZnS4sZ5HVFhrWRAgSLl3OGlMAqrbl6O-fFK4cElUW8o42-sTirKk7JCNDgqIw8sei8a_w0aZYgj6y3WxdKWJ5GY3JzlCWbs3dY-KY1BaSY-0ekU_qtn2IBqRg7mQ8GQVR0cd15b4kjptWBCOHMoxHpLJHdIIbTNxUXUtWcGJ-baS-AC0pa9hrmcMJQ/https%3A%2F%2Fwww.who.int%2Fnews-room%2Ffact-sheets/detail/substandard-and-falsified-medical-products (Accessed January 27, 2019), World Health Organization, 2018. 

Presentation Type: Poster Session Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Friday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Physical Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs: Poster holder and clips, backboard for poster

 


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Aaron Drake
Author(s):
Aaron Drake, Dr. Levi H. Mielke

Chapter: Rho
College/University: University of Indianapolis

Title:
Thermal Melting Analysis via Spectrofluorometry as a Method of Studying Protein Stability

Presentation Abstract:
Proteins are one of the fundamental components of every living organism; however, for something so vital to life they are fairly difficult to study. Proteins are extremely small on the scale of nanometers in size. For example, hemoglobin, the protein critical in oxygen transport, has a diameter of just 5 nm. That being said, they still can contain hundreds to thousands of amino acids which allow for the formation of extremely complex structures that serve a multitude of vastly different functions. A variety of scientific
methodologies are used to study these small but complex molecules to determine their different chemical and physical properties. This project focuses on the exploration of one of these particular methods, the thermal melt. Thermal melts normally involve using equipment not readily available in
many undergraduate labs, and thus this project aims to develop a thermal melt method using nontraditional resources to perform the analysis at an undergraduate level. Doing so will provide a means to both explore the principles behind the thermal melt for educational purposes, and to perform
another type of protein study at an undergraduate level.

Presentation Type: Poster Session Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Saturday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs:


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last):Roja Baruwal
Author(s):
Roja Baruwal, Jeremy Prokop, Caleb Bupp, Morgan Wajda, Maram Alokali, Lauren Michel, Adam Underwood

Chapter: Beta Chi
College/University: Walsh University

Title:
Functional Implications of NAA10 variant E100K on Protein-Protein
Interaction. 

Presentation Abstract:
N-terminal acetylation, the addition of an acetyl moiety to the N-terminus of a protein, is one of the most common protein modifications to occur in human cells with over 80% of human proteins being acetylated. Such post-translational modification of protein is catalyzed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). NAT A is a heterodimeric complex composed of the catalytic NAA10 and the axillary NAA15 subunit. NAA10 is linked to functions including post-translational N-terminal acetylation and lysine acetylation. Genomic analysis has led to the identification of a NAA10 gene variant that exchanges glutamic acid (E) with a lysine (K) amino acid at residue 100. Given the location of this mutation, E100K is predicted to modify the ability of NAA10 protein to bind to NAA15 thus hindering the enzymatic activity of NAA10 in the NAT A complex. The objective of this project was to determine if the mutation E100K perturbs the NAA10 interaction with NAA15. The hypothesis was: NAA10 protein encoding the E100K mutation shows reduced binding affinity to NAA15 compared to the native NAA10 encoding E at residue 100 when expressed in transiently co-transfected HeLa cells. To test this hypothesis, HeLa cells were seeded at a density of 4.3x103 cells/cm2 to each well of a 6-well plate. Cells were then co-transfected with NAA15 (Myc-DDK-tagged) (OriGene:MR211001) and either NAA10-E100 (DNA2.0: NAA10_TEV_3xFLAG) or NAA10-K100 (DNA2.0: NAA10E100K_TEV_3xFLAG) constructs in three wells. After lysing cells under nondenaturing conditions, COIP using Anti-FLAG M2 conjugated Dyna beads (Sigma) captured Flag-tagged NAA10 wildtype and variant. The conjugated NAA10 wildtype and mutant complexes were then used to capture the NAA15 expressed in each lysate. Captured proteins were then
subjected to SDS PAGE and western blot. Immunoreactive Myc-tagged NAA15 was detected with a rabbit anti-Myc HRP conjugated antibody (Bethyl: A190-105P) from the lysates of wildtype and mutant NAA10. The capture of NAA15 from lysate expressing NAA10-E100K was greatly reduced in western blots when compared to wildtype NAA10. These assays demonstrate that the NAA10-K100 variant exhibits deranged binding capacity to NAA15 relative to wildtype NAA10-E100 emphasizing the possible pathogenicity of this variant NAA10 due to altered NAT A complex function. 

Presentation Type: Poster Session Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Friday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs: Poster Stand


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Henrey Deese
Author(s):
Henrey Deese

Chapter: Alpha Psi
College/University: Hillsdale College

Title:
Comparison of Seven Michigan Wetlands’ Soil Bacterial Diversity Using
T-RFLP

Presentation Abstract:
Vernal Pools are underrepresented by scientific literature, yet they may have important roles in nutrient cycling and energy generation within ecosystems. Critical to this function is the diversity of microbial life that inhabits the soils of vernal pools. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (TRFLP) is a method of assessing bacterial communities by amplifying sequences from the 16s rRNA gene and cutting the DNA with a set of restriction enzymes. This generates a set of Terminal Restriction Fragments
(T-RFs), which represent a unit of diversity. Each sample was assessed using Shannon Entropy and converted into its respective Hill Number. There was no significant correlation between diversity and concentrations of magnesium, calcium, aluminum, nitrates, phosphorous, or chloride, but there was a
positive correlation between humus and bacterial diversity. Sample means did not differ significantly in reference to habitat or soil type, but sample means differed significantly across date of sampling. This suggests that available organic material may be related to increases in microbial diversity. Additionally, the differences in diversity by sampling date may reflect the effect of temperature and soil moisture on diversity, but this requires further study.

Presentation Type: Oral Paper Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Friday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs:

 


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Leah Noe
Author(s):
Leah Noe

Chapter: Gamma Eta
College/University: Marian University

Title:
Further Elucidation of the Role of Protein Kinase-C and Rho Kinase in the Mechanism of Action of Bitter Melon Extract on Human Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells 

Presentation Abstract:
It is well documented in the literature that Bitter Melon Extract (BME) inhibits the growth and proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. While the exact mechanism of this inhibition is unknown, it is
possible that Protein Kinase-C (PKC) and Rho Kinase (ROK) play a role in this mechanistic pathway due to their known critical roles in cell migration, division, and survival. Previous research has shown that ROK inhibition results in decreased cell viability and decreased MYPT1 (Myosin phosphatase targeting subunit-1) expression, while PKC inhibition alone does not have a significant effect. The aim of this research is to investigate the cytotoxic mechanism of action enacted by BME on MCF-7 cells and how PKC and ROK might be involved in this mechanism by building on past research to create more robust data and a better understanding of the metabolic state of MCF-7 cells under the set conditions. Glucose assays were run via a GM-100 glucometer to test for cell metabolism as a measure of cell viability on BME dose (0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5%, and 10% BME (v/v)) study samples, PKC inhibitor (GF109203x; 0.5 uM) samples, and ROK inhibitor (H-1152; 1 uM) samples. The samples used in each of the three conditions were secured from past research. BME dose-dependently increased glucose remaining in the culture media. The sample sizes for different doses of BME were as follows: at 0% (n=4), 0.5% (n=5), and 1% (n=5), while 2% (n=2), 5% (n=3), and 10% (n=3). The data suggests two possibilities: (i) with increasing BME dose, there is an increasing effect on the MCF-7 cell's metabolism of glucose, and that this decrease in the ability to metabolize glucose when in the presence of increasing [BME] could play a role in the cytotoxic mechanism of BME on MCF-7 cells. (ii) The BME kills cells and hence glucose is not used as much thus leaving plenty of glucose in the medium. Our results further showed that neither PKC inhibitor samples (n=7) nor ROK inhibitor samples (n=11) showed significant differences in [glucose]. This suggests that the measured effect in glucose metabolism in the BME dose-dependent study samples is independent of PKC and ROK mechanistic pathways. 

Presentation Type: Poster Session Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Friday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs:

 


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s): Alejandro Smith-Antuna, An Vuong, Dr. Levi H Mielke
Author(s):
Alejandro Smith-Antuna, An Vuong, Dr Levi H. Mielke

Chapter: Rho
College/University: University of Indianapolis

Title:
A Comparative Qualitative Compositional Analysis of Different Mosquito Coil and Stick Brands by GC-MS Analysis

Presentation Abstract:
Mosquito coils are composite materials that produce a mosquito repellent smoke when burned and can be made from a variety of ingredients. They are useful in reducing the risk of malaria and other diseases carried by mosquitoes in addition to preventing less harmful mosquito bites. However, there is a growing concern about the adverse health impacts with the burning of mosquito coils and sticks indoors. In this research, the qualitative compositional analysis of different brands of mosquito coils were investigated as to their similarity and to determine if a similar chemical makeup was used in their creation and if harmful compounds would off-gas at higher temperatures. The headspace gas of heated coils were analyzed with a  gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Samples of approximately 0.1 g – 0.3 g from five different mosquito coil brands, were broken off from coils and placed into a headspace vial.  The vials were then heated from 35°C to 260°C over the course of an hour at a flow rate of 1.6 mL/min (He carrier gas) of headspace gas passed directly into the GC, separated into its components using a custom temperature program and identified by the MS fragmentation pattern. It was concluded that none of the five brands tested had the same overall composition, and each had distinct chemical differences from the others. The OFF and Jumbo brands |contained benzene derivatives containing long-chain hydrocarbon functional groups. Several brands also contained petroleum distillates and monoterpenes. Finally, data from further research on similarities in the smoke produced from mosquito coils will be presented.

Presentation Type: Poster Session Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Saturday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Physical Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs: Only a stand for the poster.

 


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Erin Reichard
Author(s):
Erin Reichard, Dr. Alison Roth, MAJ Brandon Pybus

Chapter: Alpha Psi
College/University: Hillsdale College

Title:
Determining the Mechanism of Action of 8-Aminoquinolines Against /Plasmodium/ Liver-Stage Parasites Using RNA-Sequencing

Presentation Abstract: Embargo

Abstract Embargo: Yes
Presentation Type: Poster Session Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Friday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs:

 


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Vanessa Petrich, Lauryn Petrich, Bridget Beynon
Author(s):
Lauryn Petrich, Vanessa Petrich, Bridget Beynon, Elizabeth Breckenridge

Chapter: Gamma Gamma
College/University: Concordia College

Title:
The composition of soil in adjacent, yet distinct habitats at Long Lake Field Station, Becker County, MN. 

Presentation Abstract:
We demonstrated that adjacent, yet distinct habitats have slight differences in their soil compositional makeup in regards to moisture content, organic matter and pH. Soil samples from four habitats-wetland, lake, forest, and prairie-were gathered and tested for percent moisture content, percent organic matter, and pH level. The moisture content was determined by burning the soil samples in an oven at 75 degrees Celsius over the course of a week and then organic matter was detected by taking those subsequent samples and burning them in a Muffle furnace at around 400-500 degrees Celsius for 4 hours. The pH level of each of the samples was tested using a biological pH meter kit. Wetlands had the
highest percent moisture with the other measured habitats being relatively similar. Wetlands also had significantly more organic matter than the other sites. Finally, pH levels in each of the habitats were significantly different when compared to each other, except for the prairie and forest sites. Our findings suggest that distance could have a significant effect on the composition of soil in adjacent habitats.
This is important because it expands the knowledge of the composition of the soils in adjacent habitats. We could use our results to understand microhabitat distribution of soil organisms and how to predict conditions that would be associated with their occurrence. Finally, knowing the composition of the soil will aid us because we rely on soil as a foundation ecosystem and supporting vegetation growth.  Additionally, soil provides habitat for bacteria that perform numerous ecosystem functions.  

Presentation Type: Poster Session Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Saturday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs:

 


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Lauryn Petrich, Vanessa Petrich, Olivia Vergin
Author(s):
Lauryn Petrich, Vanessa Petrich, Olivia Vergin, and Joseph C. Whittaker

Chapter: Gamma Gamma
College/University: Concordia College

Title:
The differentiation of White-Footed mice (/Peromyscus leucopus/) from Deer mice (/Peromyscus maniculatus/) using Salivary Amylase and Morphological Measurements.

Presentation Abstract:
White-footed (/Peromyscus leucopus/), and deer (/Peromyscus maniculatus/) mice are genetically and physiologically distinguishable from each other and considered different species. However, they share morphological characteristics that overlap substantially and make it difficult to differentiate them accurately, particularly in the field. These species are important to differentiate though because they act as reservoirs for different pathogens. Recently, there has been increasing overlap in the ranges that these species of mice inhibit due to climate change.  Additionally, studies have indicated altered phenotypes of each mice species creating even more morphological overlap. Previous research has
used external measurements of the tail, hind feet and ears, pelage, and quantitative, cranial measurements to distinguish /P. leucopus /and /P. maniculatus /from one another, but these measurements have only correctly distinguish between 55% and 66% of the species, respectively. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis of their salivary amylase is a reliable measurement to differentiate these two species. Saliva samples were collected from restored and remnant prairies, and woodlands in Minnesota from 2004 to 2019. Electrophoresis on salivary samples has been run on samples collected up until 2016 and compared with their with the corresponding morphological measurements. We compared morphological measurements and their corresponding electrophoresis results to see if there are any field marks that can be used for identification. The focus of this specific research is to determine the validity of morphological identification by comparing the phenotypic measurements of the mice with their corresponding salivary amylase identification.

Presentation Type: Poster Session Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Saturday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs:

 


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Ingrid Jacobson, Johannes Bjorge, Karsen Granning, Shawna Pantzke, Maya Woodwick
Author(s):
Ingrid Jacobson, Johannes Bjorge, Karsen Granning, Shawna Pantzke, Maya Woodwick

Chapter: Gamma Gamma
College/University: Concordia College, Moorhead

Title: Identification and Cloning of Genes Involved in Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Lipid Droplet Biogenesis

Presentation Abstract:
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), commonly referred to as African sleeping sickness, is a neglected tropical disease present in Sub-Saharan Africa. No vaccine exists for HAT, and current treatments are
harsh. We investigated the genome of the parasite Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which causes 98% of all sleeping sickness cases, in hopes of finding targets for future drugs. Our lab reviewed genomic databases and existing literature, searching for genes thought to be involved in the synthesis of lipid droplets; organelles crucial for overall lipid homeostasis and membrane regulation. We identified several genes, designed primers, and amplified genes via PCR reactions. After confirming PCR amplification via agarose gel electrophoresis, we cloned our genes into plasmids and transformed them into E. coli. Preliminary results indicate that we successfully cloned eight out of ten targeted genes. We will next attempt to clone these genes into T. brucei expression plasmids to facilitate expression
in T. brucei. Our hope is to determine the subcellular localization of proteins hypothesized to play a role in lipid droplet biogenesis.

Presentation Type: Poster Session Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Friday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs:

 


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last):Milica Sostarec
Author(s):
Milica Sostarec, Dr. Angela LaMora

Chapter: Beta
College/University: McKendree University

Title:
Development of a Chick Embryo in a Cup

Presentation Abstract:
Chickens (/Gallus gallus/) and their eggs have been widely used as a model organism through the history of science. The accessibility of external eggs with short incubation times make this an ideal model for developmental studies. Furthermore, chick embryonic development has many similarities with human embryo development and therefore, has proven to be a useful model to study embryogenesis and development of specific organ systems. According to Yutaka Tahara, an Oihama High School Head Teacher for Biology in Japan, a shell-less culture, where a chick embryo is taken from an eggshell and
cultured in an artificial environment, is an important technique that could be helpful for the preservation of rare birds, if it can be applied to saving damaged eggs, as well as for better understanding of embryonic development of more complex organisms (Tahara and Obara, 2014). The purpose of this study was to observe chick embryo development in a plastic cup and compare it to
development of an embryo in an egg at different stages.To carry out this experiment, plastic cups were covered with transparent polymethylpentene film, then egg-contents were moved into the cups, and kept in an incubator. Other eggs were in their shell and used as a control group. Although Tahara
and Obara describe success with this procedure, my results were not as successful. I was able to observe growth of an embryo in the cup for two days only. I believe temperature may have been a significant factor as well as some of the materials used. In the future, with some changes to my experimental procedures, I wish to try again with hope that this technique can be used successfully in labs around the world.

Presentation Type: Poster Session Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Friday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs: A small table for for my laptop.

 


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Andre Schaum
Author(s):
Andre Schaum, D. Bryan Bishop

Chapter: Gamma Gamma
College/University: Concordia College

Title:
Implementation of Electron Capture Detection for Chlorinated Pesticide Analysis in the Concordia College Instrument Laboratory

Presentation Abstract:
In the summer of 2019, an electron capture detector (ECD) was installed in tandem with a gas chromatograph (GC) in the Concordia College Instrument Laboratory. As electron capture detection is highly sensitive to functional groups with high electron affinities (/e.g. /halogens, nitro groups, nitriles), they are frequently used for the analysis of chlorinated pesticides such as lindane and 4,4’-DDT. In collaboration with Dr. D Bryan Bishop, entomology professor at Concordia College, a small investigation of chlorinated pesticides in pollen collected by a local beekeeper was devised. To date, the ECD has been installed on the GC, a protocol for transferring between the ECD and the mass spectrometer has been established, and a pilot study focused on the detection of 20 organochlorine pesticides in pollen has been conducted. For the pilot study, a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) extraction method followed by dispersive solid phase extraction was used to extract potential pesticides from pollen samples and a US EPA method with minor modifications was used for GC-ECD analysis.
Extraction efficiencies of 44-133% and limits of detection of as low as 0.17 ng L-1 were achieved, supporting the viability of these methods for future use at Concordia. Additionally, trace amounts of endrin aldehyde, an organochlorine pesticide, were observed in two of the pollen samples, though confidence in this identification is limited due to time restraints and method variability.

Presentation Type: Poster Session Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Friday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Physical Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs:


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last):  Faith James, Logan Hatfield, Greta Duren, Jake Rames
Author(s):
F. James, L. Hatfield, P. Bailey, G. Duren, J. Rames, D. Braund, J. Watson, J. O’Neill-Englund, J. C. Whittaker

Chapter: Gamma Gamma
College/University: Concordia College

Title:
Habitat Analysis of Plains Pocket Mouse (/Perognathus flavescens/) in Minnesota

Presentation Abstract:
Small mammal trapping in both remnant and restored northwestern Minnesota prairies provides data on occurrence and population trends of inhabitants. Among the species caught over a 15 year span (2004-2019) was the plains pocket mouse (/Perognathus flavescens/). /Perognathus flavescens/ reaches its northeastern range limit in Minnesota and is currently listed as being of special concern to the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. We have caught ten individuals at sites in Clay and Norman Counties, with the most recent caught in July 2019. One of the three Clay county sites is a restored prairie, while the other sites—along with one Norman County site—are remnant prairie. The total number of /P. flavescens /occurrences has remained low through years of trapping, likely due to increased land development and subsequent habitat fragmentation. Further sampling and vigilance are
recommended in order to determine if the species should remain of conservation concern. Our analyses examine the soil and vegetation content of areas with recent and historical occurrences of /P. flavescens /to understand habitat suitability trends. Our findings seek to determine suitable habitat for continued study and identify conservation management implications.

Presentation Type: Poster Session Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Saturday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs:


 

Presenter(s) Information:

Name(s) (First Last): Anh Nguyen
Author(s):
Anh Nguyen, Tim Bishop, and Michael Erb

Chapter: Gamma Gamma
College/University: Concordia College

Title:
Assessing Roles of DPF and MYST Domains of KAT6A in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Presentation Abstract:
Lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) acetylate histone proteins at lysine residues and play essential roles in chromatin organization and transcription. KAT6A (also known as MOZ or MYST3), belongs to the MYST (Moz, Ybf2/Sas3, Sas2, Tip60) family of KATs, and is a co-regulator that activates transcription. Two well-characterized functional domains of KAT6A are double plant homeodomain zinc finger (DPF) and MYST acetyltransferase. Physiologically, KAT6A protein plays a role in the development of hematopoietic stem cells and the differentiation of erythroid and myeloid cells. Importantly,/ KAT6A/ has been shown to be a genetic dependency in certain subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we used genetic assay to test the necessity of the DPF and MYST domains of /KAT6A/ for the survival and growth of OCI/AML-2 cell line. Specifically, we cloned /KAT6A/ transgenes that were mutated in DPF and MYST domains and then developed different gRNAs as the targets for CRISPR/Cas9. The mutations were missense in which one amino acid in each binding site was substituted. Experimental results indicated that the knock-out of endogenous /KAT6A/ by Cas9 inhibited the growth of OCI/AML-2 cells. When comparing two sets of /KAT6A/ rescue experiment, exon-intron (EI) spanning gRNAs were less effective than Brunello gRNAs. After day 20, green fluorescent protein (GFP) was depleted approximately ten times in Brunello gRNAs and two times in EI spanning gRNAs. Therefore, different /KAT6A/ transgenes mutated in both protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequence and the two functional domains were developed to be resistant to Brunello gRNAs. These mutated genes along with Brunello gRNAs will be used for future /KAT6A/ rescue experiment.

Presentation Type: Oral Paper Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Saturday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs:


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Benjamin Bogart
Author(s):
Benjamin R. Bogart and Luiz A. Manzoni

Chapter: Gamma Gamma
College/University: Concordia College Moorhead

Title:
Quantum Tunneling Time Distributions For Double δ Potential Barriers 

Presentation Abstract:
We considered a localized particle described by a Gaussian wave packet incident on barriers consisting of two point potentials with defined parity symmetry (double δ, double δ’ and double δ(1) ). Using the Salecker-Wigner-Peres clock and phase time, we then investigated the average times and a distribution of times for quantum tunneling events, recently proposed in [2] Lunardi, Jose T. and Manzoni, Luiz, A. Average tunneling times showed no evidence of the Generalized Hartman Effect in any scenario. Both the average times and the distributions of times were generally qualitatively similar for the clock and phase times. Only for small barrier separations did they diverge significantly.

[2] Lunardi, Jose T. and Manzoni, Luiz, A., “A Probability Distribution
for Quantum Tunneling Times.” Advances in High Energy Physics, vol. 2018,
19 August 2018.

Presentation Type: Poster Session Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Saturday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Physical Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs:

 


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Payton Price
Author(s):
Payton Price,Kshitij Amar,Torrey Holland, Poopalasingam Sivakumar, Farhan Chowdhury

Chapter: Beta
College/University: McKendree University/ SIU Carbondale

Title:
A Study of Tumor Repopulating Cell Growth and Associated Biosignatures in
Pancreatic Cancer to Understand In Vivo Disease Progression

Presentation Abstract:
Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in America and across the world. The underlying mechanism of proliferation and progression is still poorly understood. Here we present, a biomechanical characterization of two prominent Human pancreatic cancer cell lines, PANC-1 and CFPAC-1 using a combination of microenvironment scaffolding, traction force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. This fibrin gel scaffolding allows us to create a 90 Pa microenvironment which has been previously shown1 to promote growth and selection of tumorigenic subpopulation namely tumor repopulating cells (TRCs) within the cancerous tumor. We then culture these
cells on 2.5 kPa poly-acrylamide gels with fluorescent nanobeads to conduct traction force microscopy (TFM). The underlying forces are quantified using these but the combination of receptors that triggers this behavior is till poorly understood. Here we also present, a Raman spectroscopy-based technique to identify single receptors bases on Raman scattering of the cell surface. The difference in receptors between control cells and TRCs will reveal the distinct receptors responsible for progression and relocation of tumor in the human body.

Presentation Type: Poster Session Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Friday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs:

 


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Matthew Frank
Author(s):
Matthew A. Frank & Paris W. Barnes

Chapter: Pi
College/University: Millikin University

Title:
Ionic Conduction in Li5Al1-2/x/Ti/x/Zn/x/O4 and Li6ZnO4 Antifluorites 

Presentation Abstract:

Lithium-based ionic conductors have been studied since the early 1970s.Batteries constructed using Li-ionic conductors have undergone limited changes since then. Mobile battery power is an essential aspect of current technological applications, but the current battery model has limitations. During this project, β-Li5Al1-2/x/Ti/x/Zn/x/O4 (0 £ /x/ £ 0.15), and Li6ZnO4 were synthesized and their structures were determined using high-resolution synchrotron powder diffraction. Results from the synchrotron powder diffraction demonstrate that Ti4+ and Zn2+ cations were adopted into the antifluorite structure of β-Li5AlO4  and that the materials were near single-phased. Ionic conductivities of the antifluorite materials will be reported. Structure-ionic conduction property relationships will be discussed, allowing for better Li-ion containing antifluorite materials to chosen and studied for their applications in Li-ion battery technology.

Presentation Type: Poster Session Presentation
Presentation Time Preference:
Subject Area of Presentation: Physical Sciences Presentation
Equipment Needs:

 


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Sofia Palme
Author(s):
Sofia Palme, Andrew Johnson, Graeme Wyllie

Chapter:
Gamma Gamma
College/University:
Concordia College

Title:
Candy, Color, and Chromatography: Polarity and Chromatography in the General Chemistry Lab

Presentation Abstract:
One of the challenges in chemical education research is creating new materials that embrace the required complex topics while engaging the students through the utilization of real-world examples. At Concordia College, we have recently worked on improving student understanding of polarity and chromatography in the general chemistry laboratory through a series of new course-based activities. Our project incorporated commercially available colored materials, namely marker pens and food dyes, which possess components of differing polarities that the students were able to separate out using different methods of chromatography. The colorful nature and minimal hazardous waste of the food dyes make them ideal for these brand new, engaging labs. The students were able to see the colors as they separated out from one another on the examples of thin layer chromatography that were performed, and students were able to see peaks that represented each color on the high-performance liquid chromatography machine. The students then used these peak values to calculate the amounts of different colors in not only the food dyes, but also the amounts of food dyes in candies. Our research was successfully implemented at Concordia College in the Fall of 2019. When the students were surveyed after the experiment, they showed improvement in their knowledge of polarity and their attitude towards that subject matter. Future work on this project includes an expansion on our food dye library and further improvement in the implementation of the lab. This poster will share details of not only the experiments, but also results from this past implementation and how this is being refined for future use.

Presentation Type:
Poster Session Presentation
Presentation Time Preference:
Saturday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation:
Physical Sciences


 

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s)
(First Last) Chase Hallemann

Chase Hallemann

Beta
McKendree University

Title
A Preliminary Investigation of Photoacoustic Imaging to Detect Lupus Nephritis

Presentation Abstract:
Lupus nephritis is renal disease caused by systemic lupus erythematosus. Renal biopsies are required in order to confirm lupus nephritis, an invasive procedure to the patient. The aim of this study was to detect and confirm lupus nephritis using a non-invasive procedure. This research tested the ability of photoacoustic imaging to detect disease activity and progression of glomerulonephritis (renal disease similar to lupus nephritis, but not caused by lupus) infected kidneys. Results suggest that photoacoustic imaging has limited ability to detect disease activity and progression because the technology is so new to the rheumatology field. Finding a non-invasive procedure that can be used to detect and confirm lupus nephritis will be highly beneficial to the patients’ health as disease activity could be detected sooner, and more often, with no effects relative to an invasive procedure.

Oral Paper Presentation
Saturday Morning Session
Life Sciences



Name(s) (First Last) Jana Garrow
Jana Garrow, Robb VanPutte
Sigma Zeta Beta
McKendree University
Prevalence of Genetic Lactose Intolerance and Self-Reported Misdiagnosis Rates at Mckendree University
Lactose intolerance is an extremely prevalent disorder within the United States (68% of the adult population) that affects the body’s ability to produce lactase past the infant/toddler stage. It affects different ethnic groups at different prevalence rates, and symptoms can vary in severity within these ethnic groups, making its diagnosis and the ability to educate the general public and physicians difficult. In this study, a randomized sample of the general population at McKendree University was selected. 30 participants, 10 from each of the ethnicities studied (Hispanic, Caucasian, African American), were included and DNA was extracted from cheek cells collected from each individual to determine genetic lactose intolerance. 14/30 (47%) participants displayed the genotype CC, lactose intolerant, 6 each from the African American and Hispanic racial-ethnic groups and 2 from the Caucasian group. 8/30 (27%) self-reported lactose intolerance in a survey completed prior to cheek cell collection, 2 each from the Caucasian and Hispanic groups and 4 from the African American group. Misdiagnosis rates were highest in the Hispanic group at 60%, with rates slightly lower in the Caucasian and African American groups at 40%. There was no significance between groups for either misdiagnosis (P = .612) nor self-reporting (P = .534), perhaps because of the limitation of small sample sizes. Self-reporting of lactose intolerance can lead to avoidance of dairy products, which can lead to more serious health problems, such as diabetes and hypertension. Lactose intolerance and its continuing education is important in the medical community to prevent self and physician misdiagnosis which could possibly lead to worse health. 
Oral Paper Presentation
Saturday Morning Session
Life Sciences

 

Name(s)Lauryn Hinckley*
Lauryn Hinckley
Gamma Gamma
Concordia College
Determination of the Efficacy of Chitosan-Alginate Bioplastics as a Delivery System of Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen
The rate and extent of release of a pharmaceutical from a delivery medium, such as a gel-cap, is a critical part of drug delivery. Bioplastics, which can degrade safely in the body, can provide an alternative to traditional gel-caps or solid tablets. The Wyllie lab has carried out extensive work on polysaccharide bioplastics made from chitosan (a derivative of chitin from crustacean shells) and alginate (derived from seaweed). Chitosan-alginate bioplastics as a drug release system are hypothesized to provide a better and slower release than what is currently available. Bioplastic films impregnated with acetaminophen and ibuprofen have been prepared and portions of these immersed in solution to measure release rate. Concentration of the drugs in the solution were then determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). By looking at immediate and long-term release rates, partition coefficients for the drug between the bioplastic and the solution were determined. Individual release rates of acetaminophen and ibuprofen were determined separately from a series of chitosan alginate bioplastics containing either analgesic. Bioplastics containing both analgesics were also prepared and studied to see if there was any cooperative or inhibitive effects from the two separate analgesics. In this poster, we will discuss the preliminary results of our research. Funding for this project was provided from a 2019 Sigma Zeta Research grant.
Poster Session Presentation
Friday Morning Session
Life Sciences
.


Name(s) (First Last): Rachel Hurrell
Rachel Hurrell, Levi Mielke
Rho
University of Indianapolis
RP-HPLC Simultaneous Qunatification of Ampicillin and Cloxacillin in Ampiclox 
Substandard and falsified medical products are becoming increasingly prevalent in developing nations. These products pose a significant threat to human health and place strain on many resources in the medical industry. Included are pharmaceuticals that contain a different amount or identity of the active ingredient. Such a discrepancy may result in ineffective treatment of illness and inflict harm on the patient. Antibiotics are among the most widely reported classes of substandard and falsified drugs. It is crucial to the well-being of society that such substandard medications are identified and removed from the market. One effort currently employed to identify these pharmaceuticals is Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC). Initially, this investigation focused on the development of a method using RP-HPLC to quantify the ampicillin and cloxacillin contained in the antibiotic Ampiclox. The method was tested to ensure that the separation produces parameters that satisfy United States Pharmacopeia (USP) standards. Following validation, the method was accepted for the analysis of Ampiclox tablets.  Recently, a subset of 21 Ampiclox pills collected in Liberia was analyzed. There are strict guidelines, regulations, and quality assurance procedures that must be followed during analysis of pharmaceuticals. Following these criteria, preliminary results and indications of the quality of the pill have been determined. 
Oral Paper Presentation
Friday Morning Session
Physical Sciences


Name(s) (First Last): Reinaldo Figueroa
Name(s) (First Last): Juan Rached
Jyrko Correa-Morris, Reinaldo Figueroa, Juan Rached.
Gamma Rho
Miami Dade College
The number of minimal atomic decompositions of partitions.
In this paper, we compute the number of minimal atomic decompositions that a partition /P / of finite set admits. With that purpose, we establish a first bijection between the set of such decompositions and the set of forests whose connected components are the blocks of the partition /P/. Then, we combine the first bijection with a Pr̈ufer sequence argument to isomorphically map the minimal atomic decompositions into generalized Pr̈ufer sequences. Additionally, we provide an algorithm to find the optimum minimal atomic decomposition inspired by Kruskal’s.
Oral Paper Presentation
Saturday Morning Session
Mathematics
Projector

Presenter(s) Information:
Name(s) (First Last): Evelyn Diagostino
Author(s):
Evelyn Diagostino

Chapter: Gamma Eta
College/University: Marian University

Title:
Studies towards the identification of a ketone reductase in Lens culinaris. 

Presentation Abstract: *

Abstract Embargo: Yes

Presentation Type: Poster Session Presentation
Presentation Time Preference: Friday Morning Session
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences
Presentation Equipment Needs: